Bike Computer With Cadence

3,483 Reviews Scanned

In order to provide you with accurate and valuable pieces of information and reviews, we have conducted in-depth research for the best bike computer with cadence of 2024. In addition, you will find our top picks and highest-reviewed products in the section below.
# Preview Product Rating
1 COOSPO Bike Computer Wireless GPS,Bike Speedometer with Auto Backlight, Bluetooth5.0 ANT Cycling GPS... COOSPO Bike Computer Wireless GPS,Bike Speedometer with Auto Backlight, Bluetooth5.0 ANT Cycling... No ratings yet
2 COOSPO GPS Cycling Computer BC107 & Bike Cadence/Speed Sensor BK467, Wireless Bike GPS Speedometer... COOSPO GPS Cycling Computer BC107 & Bike Cadence/Speed Sensor BK467, Wireless Bike GPS...
3 COOSPO Bike Computer Wireless GPS, Cycling Computer GPS Bike Tracker with Bluetooth/ANT+, Waterproof... COOSPO Bike Computer Wireless GPS, Cycling Computer GPS Bike Tracker with Bluetooth/ANT+,...
4 DREAM SPORT Wireless Bike Computer with Speed and Cadence Sensor Speedometer Odometer Cycling... DREAM SPORT Wireless Bike Computer with Speed and Cadence Sensor Speedometer Odometer Cycling... No ratings yet
5 Wahoo Rpm Cycling Speed/Cadence Sensor for Outdoor, Spin and Stationary Bikes Wahoo Rpm Cycling Speed/Cadence Sensor for Outdoor, Spin and Stationary Bikes
6 Sigma Bike Computer, Originals BC 14.0 Wireless STS w/Optional Cadence, 14 Functions, Altitude,... Sigma Bike Computer, Originals BC 14.0 Wireless STS w/Optional Cadence, 14 Functions, Altitude,...
7 CYCPLUS Bike Computer Set Include Speed Sensor and Mount, Wireless Bicycle Speedometer Odometer,... CYCPLUS Bike Computer Set Include Speed Sensor and Mount, Wireless Bicycle Speedometer Odometer,... No ratings yet
8 ROCKBROS Bike Computer Wireless Cycling Computers ANT+ Bluetooth Bike Speedometer Odometer Bicycle... ROCKBROS Bike Computer Wireless Cycling Computers ANT+ Bluetooth Bike Speedometer Odometer... No ratings yet
9 CATEYE, Urban Wireless Bike Computer, Black CATEYE, Urban Wireless Bike Computer, Black No ratings yet
10 iGPSPORT BSC200 Bike/Cycling Computer, Route Navigation 2.5inch Screen Bluetooth ANT+ Wireless GPS... iGPSPORT BSC200 Bike/Cycling Computer, Route Navigation 2.5inch Screen Bluetooth ANT+ Wireless...
11 MEILAN M4 Wireless Bike Computer, ANT+ BLE4.0 Bicycle Speedometer and Odometer with Cadence/Speed... MEILAN M4 Wireless Bike Computer, ANT+ BLE4.0 Bicycle Speedometer and Odometer with Cadence/Speed... No ratings yet
12 CATEYE, Padrone Wireless Bike Computer, Black CATEYE, Padrone Wireless Bike Computer, Black No ratings yet
13 Sigma BC 14.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer w/Optional Cadence | Altitude Functions -... Sigma BC 14.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer w/Optional Cadence | Altitude Functions -... No ratings yet
14 XOSS G+ Gen2 GPS Bike Computer ANT+/ Bluetooth IPX7 Cycling Computer Rechargeable Speedometer... XOSS G+ Gen2 GPS Bike Computer ANT+/ Bluetooth IPX7 Cycling Computer Rechargeable Speedometer... No ratings yet
15 iGPSPORT BSC100S Bicycle/Bike Computer Wireless, 2.6 inch LCD Display Rechargeable Waterproof GPS... iGPSPORT BSC100S Bicycle/Bike Computer Wireless, 2.6 inch LCD Display Rechargeable Waterproof GPS...
16 Sigma BC 23.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer | Altitude, Cadence & Heart Functions for... Sigma BC 23.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer | Altitude, Cadence & Heart Functions for...
17 CATEYE - Padrone Digital Bluetooth Cycling Computer (Padrone Digital Magnetless) CATEYE - Padrone Digital Bluetooth Cycling Computer (Padrone Digital Magnetless) No ratings yet
18 XOSS G+ GPS Bike Computer ANT+ with 2 Smart Cadence Sensor, Bluetooth Cycling Computer, Wireless... XOSS G+ GPS Bike Computer ANT+ with 2 Smart Cadence Sensor, Bluetooth Cycling Computer, Wireless... No ratings yet
19 iGPSPORT BSC300 GPS Cycling/Bike Computer, Bicycle Computer with Offline maps and Dynamic Road... iGPSPORT BSC300 GPS Cycling/Bike Computer, Bicycle Computer with Offline maps and Dynamic Road... No ratings yet
20 Sigma BC 23.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer | Altitude, Cadence & Heart Functions for... Sigma BC 23.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer | Altitude, Cadence & Heart Functions for... No ratings yet

SaleBestseller No. 3
COOSPO Bike Computer Wireless GPS, Cycling Computer GPS Bike Tracker with Bluetooth/ANT+, Waterproof...
  • Note: Packaging has been upgraded, please purchase the extension long front mount separately if you need it.
  • SMALL BUT POWERFUL: Using BC107 GPS bike computer, we want to equip riders with high-cost performance electronic solutions that make their rides more...
  • COMPACT AND LIGHTWEIGHT DESIGN: The display size of BC107 wireless cycling computer to 2.3 inches for the compact design, leaving no wasted space...
  • GPS AND BEIDOU POSITIONING: BC107 has 2 modes of global positioning (GPS /GPS&BEIDOU), which can provide accurate GPS data all over the world. After...
  • ANT+ SENSOR COMPATIBILITY: Built for both budget and convenience, BC107 maximizes compatibility by working perfectly with ANT+ sensors, such as heart...
Bestseller No. 4
DREAM SPORT Wireless Bike Computer with Speed and Cadence Sensor Speedometer Odometer Cycling...
  • [Wireless & Independent ] Dream Sport bicycle computer DCY235 with cadence sensor, speed sensor. Large LCD, Backlight, Clear display, Small size...
  • [Multi-Functions] Basic 35 functions & Cadence Mode & two button to read your speed, cadence, odometer statistics easily. Cadence / Speedometer /...
  • [Easy to install and use] Speed: Install speed sensor on your fork, magnet on the spoke. Cadence: Install cadence sensor on chain stay near the crank,...
  • [View data from your professional coach] Press right button to switch modes: speed or cadence; Press left button to choose select data. ODO measures...
  • [ 20+ choices 1 year warranty] Dreamsport have full range 20+ models cycling products for choices and worldwide professional user with professional...
Bestseller No. 5
Wahoo Rpm Cycling Speed/Cadence Sensor for Outdoor, Spin and Stationary Bikes
  • SPEED / CADENCE MEASUREMENT - Track and capture real-time cycling speed and cadence with compatible training apps, including Wahoo SYSTM & RGT, Zwift,...
  • CYCLING CADENCE - The number of revolutions per minute (RPM) you complete at a given speed. By learning how to increase and train your cycling...
  • DUAL BAND TECHNOLOGY - Integrated with ANT+ and Bluetooth Smart capabilities, Wahoo’s RPM Speed & Cadence sensors connect to smartphones, tablets,...
  • SLEEK AND EASY TO INSTALL (NO MAGNETS) - Universal fit fits most bikes and frame sizes. Cadence sensor attaches to a bike’s crank arm or shoe; Speed...
  • VISIBLE CONNECTION – Two LED lights give instant feedback: the sensor's device connection (blue) and RPM detection (one red blink per crank turn).
Bestseller No. 6
Sigma Bike Computer, Originals BC 14.0 Wireless STS w/Optional Cadence, 14 Functions, Altitude,...
  • ALTITUDE TRACKING w/ OPTIONAL CADENCE: The bike computer has an integrated barometric altitude measurement system and can be used on two bikes. It...
  • WEATHERPROOF w/ LONG BATTERY LIFE: The BC 14.0 WL is water-resistant and weatherproof, so it can be used at any time. Cyclists do not have to worry...
  • WIRELESS DATA TRANSFER & EASY OPERATION: The wireless (WL) encoded transmission SIGMA has developed eliminates the need for cables. A wireless...
  • LARGE DISPLAY: The BC 14.0 WL's slim design and angular shape look good, especially on a sporty bike. The 31 x 41 mm display has room for large...
  • SIMPLE INSTALLATION & OPERATION: Handlebar bracket and speed sensor can be mounted on the bike with cable ties (included). The pre-defined tire sizes,...
Bestseller No. 7
CYCPLUS Bike Computer Set Include Speed Sensor and Mount, Wireless Bicycle Speedometer Odometer,...
  • 【Dynamic GPS Positioning】Higher sensitivity, Higher accuracy, Faster positioning. The navigating chip is imported from Switzerland. The GPS signal...
  • 【2.9-inch Screen】The glare-free backlit screen introduces FSTN technology, which is highly visible in sunlight. The LCD screen will light up...
  • 【ANT+ Sync Sensor and App】It supports simultaneous recording of various data such as speed, cadence, heart rate, power, route traveled, altitude,...
  • 【SPEED SENSOR & CADENCE SENSOR】The bike computer set include a speed &cadence sensor, you can switch between cadence and speed sensor modes by...
  • 【Easy Installation】 CYCPLUS handlebar mount can be easily installed on your bike within 60 seconds (screwdriver included). All you need is to fix...
Bestseller No. 8
ROCKBROS Bike Computer Wireless Cycling Computers ANT+ Bluetooth Bike Speedometer Odometer Bicycle...
  • 【Rich Data Display】 There are a total of 25 different data items available for users to choose from, such as speed, slope, altitude, distance,...
  • 【LED HD Display】 The automatic backlight adjustment system helps you easily read the display in bright sunlight and during nighttime rides. Please...
  • 【Abundant Accessories Included】 Your bike computer bundle includes a computer, a cadence sensor, and a computer mount. Additionally, it comes with...
  • 【Precise Positioning System】 Our bike computer is equipped with 4 positioning systems, including GPS, Beidou, GLONASS, and Galileo. The system...
  • 【Long 35-Hour Battery Life】 With a built-in 1200mAh battery, our bike computer offers a maximum battery life of over 35 hours, so you won't have...
Bestseller No. 9
CATEYE, Urban Wireless Bike Computer, Black
  • ALL YOUR FAVORITE STATS: Displays current, max, and average speed, total distance, trip distance, elapsed time, calorie consumption, pace arrow, and...
  • SAVE YOUR MILES: With the option to manually set the odometer, you don't have to start over every time you change the battery.
  • SECURE AND GO: With our FlexTight Bracket, you can easily mount, adjust, and move your computer by hand. Spend less time setting up your gear and more...
  • DON'T SWEAT THE SMALL STOPS: Caught at a red light? Stopping for coffee? We've got you covered. Your CatEye computer knows when you've stopped and...
  • DATA FOR HEALTH: The Urban Wireless also tracks calories burned.
Bestseller No. 10
iGPSPORT BSC200 Bike/Cycling Computer, Route Navigation 2.5inch Screen Bluetooth ANT+ Wireless GPS...
  • 【Global GPS Coverage】This bike computer supports 5 satellites positioning (GPS+Beidou+GLONASS+GALILEO+QZSS), which makes it positioning faster and...
  • 【Route Navigation】The cycle computer can save multiple routes, supports route preview and turn prompts.
  • 【Off Course Warning】Once you veer off course you will be notified until you are back on the correct course.
  • 【140+ Riding Data】This bicycle computer offers over 140 riding data, such as speed, distance, grade, cadence, calories, time, temperature etc.
  • 【Data Analysis and Sharing】This GPS bike computer supports iGPSPORT APP connection, can analyze your riding data, and share your data to Strava,...
SaleBestseller No. 11
MEILAN M4 Wireless Bike Computer, ANT+ BLE4.0 Bicycle Speedometer and Odometer with Cadence/Speed...
  • 【SPEED/CADENCE SENSOR & ANT+】Meilan M4 use Bluetooth 4.0/ANT+ dual wireless transmission technology, connect with wireless speed/cadence sensor,...
  • 【LARGER & CLEARER SCREEN】With 2.5-inch high-definition display, this bike computer can be adjusted three brightness levels. You can clearly read...
  • 【WATERPROOF & USB RECHARGEABLE】IPX5 waterproof design, our bicycle computer can effectively resist the rain and snow weather while cycling....
  • 【EASY INSTALLATION & OPERATION】Simply mount the sensor in the appropriate location and then it can read the data while cycling. The gap between...
  • 【BEST SERVICE】Our products are directly produced by the Meilan Factory, providing a three-month replacement and one-year warranty for after-sales...
Bestseller No. 12
CATEYE, Padrone Wireless Bike Computer, Black
  • ALL YOUR FAVORITE STATS: Displays current, max, and average speed, total distance, trip distance, elapsed time, and clock.
  • SAVE YOUR MILES: With the option to manually set the odometer, you don't have to start over every time you change the battery.
  • FOCUS ON THE RIDE, NOT THE SCREEN: Don't let navigating menus or buttons get in the way of enjoying your ride. Simply press the base of the unit to...
  • SECURE AND GO: With our FlexTight Bracket, you can easily mount, adjust, and move your computer by hand. Spend less time setting up your gear and more...
  • DON'T SWEAT THE SMALL STOPS: Caught at a red light? Stopping for coffee? We've got you covered. Your CatEye computer knows when you've stopped and...
SaleBestseller No. 13
Sigma BC 14.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer w/Optional Cadence | Altitude Functions -...
  • ALTITUDE & CADENCE FUNCTIONS: Sigma 14.16 STS CAD wireless computer is packed with tracking functions for current altitude, current gradient, trip...
  • TRACKING FEATURES: Bikers can quickly scan through the display for the following data: Current speed, Average speed, Comparison of cur./avg. speed,...
  • COMPATIBLE WITH ANDROID PHONES: NFC communication and SIGMA Link app help with transmitting data to Android smart phones for easy programming and data...
  • USER FRIENDLY FEATURES: 14.16 STS CAD computer has a motion sensor for automatic start/stop feature. Other features include automatic bike recognition...
  • ACCESSORIES: Includes Computer w battery, bracket for wireless models, STS speed transmitter w battery, magnet, mounting material, operating...
Bestseller No. 14
XOSS G+ Gen2 GPS Bike Computer ANT+/ Bluetooth IPX7 Cycling Computer Rechargeable Speedometer...
  • 【Rich screen data display】G+ Gen2 cycling computer has up to 24 screen display data (displays 10 data on a single screen), which can...
  • 【Support Heart Rate and Cadence】 XOSS G+ Gen2 GPS bike computer supports heart rate monitor and cadence sensor (need extra purchase). Both bike...
  • 【28hrs Long Battery Life】500mAh rechargeable lithium battery can be used for up to 28 hours, longer than G+,letting you away from the trouble of...
  • 【USB-C interface】The interface adopts the current mainstream USB-C interface technology, which is convenient for charging.
  • 【Synchronize STRAVA】G+ Gen2 can automatically record data after catching GPS signal. After riding, you can connect XOSS app to upload your ride...
SaleBestseller No. 15
iGPSPORT BSC100S Bicycle/Bike Computer Wireless, 2.6 inch LCD Display Rechargeable Waterproof GPS...
  • 【Global GPS Coverage】This bike computer supports 5 satellites positioning (GPS+Beidou+GLONASS+GALILEO+QZSS), which makes it positioning faster and...
  • 【40+ Riding Data】This bicycle computer offers over 40 riding data, such as speed, distance, grade, cadence, calories, time, temperature etc.
  • 【Data Analysis and Sharing】This GPS bike computer supports iGPSPORT APP connection, can analyze your riding data, and share your data to Strava,...
  • 【2.6 inch Large Screen】This cycling computer is designed with a 2.6 inch large anti-glare screen to let you see clearly while riding.
  • 【40H Battery Life】This wireless bike computer designed with type C charge port which means it takes less time to fully charge than normal old...
SaleBestseller No. 16
Sigma BC 23.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer | Altitude, Cadence & Heart Functions for...
  • PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR PROFESSIONALS: Sigma BC 23.16 STS Wireless Bicycle Computer is designed for professional cyclists to closely monitor...
  • ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE SEPARATELY: 00166 Cadence Magnet, 00165 Power Magnet, 00209 STS Bracket 2450, 00205 STS Bike 2 Kit 2450, 00162 STS Cadence...
  • FUNCTIONS: Current Speed, Average speed, Maximum speed, Comparison of cur./avg. speed, Distance, Total distance, Ride time, Total ride time, Clock...
  • HEART RATE FUNCTIONS: Heart rate graph, Cur./avg./max. Heart rate, Zone graph showing heart rate as % of max. HR, Intensity zones graph, Calories...
  • MORE FEATURES: Automatic start/stop with motion sensor, Back-up function via memory chip, Low battery indicator (computer head + transmitters),...
Bestseller No. 17
CATEYE - Padrone Digital Bluetooth Cycling Computer (Padrone Digital Magnetless)
  • PADRONE DIGITAL MAGNETLESS: Included dual band ANT+/BLE Speed and Cadence sensors provide an effortless set-up experience without the need to align...
  • OVERSIZE DISPLAY: The Padrone Digital Wireless shows your cadence and ride stats on a large, 3-row screen with up to four data displays and is also...
  • IPX-7 WATERPROOF: SPD-30 and CDC-30 Magnetless Sensors are waterproof rated to withstand the elements so you can ride on rain or shine.
  • Meet your perfect Training partner: The Padrone Digital Wireless shows your cadence and ride stats on a large, 3-row screen with up to four data...
Bestseller No. 18
XOSS G+ GPS Bike Computer ANT+ with 2 Smart Cadence Sensor, Bluetooth Cycling Computer, Wireless...
  • 【Warm Tips】The latest firmware has undergone bug fix and firmware optimization. We recommend that you connect to the XOSS app after receiving the...
  • 【One Year Warranty】XOSS is committed to providing you with high quality products and a good after-sales experience. Our products come with a...
  • 【Attention】PLEASE DO NOT USE THE PRODUCT INDOOR And download the XOSS APP to upgrade the firmware at first use to ensure the bike computer working...
  • 【Sync to STRAVA & Free ReAR】 Professional XOSS Cycling Computer Riding APP supports uploading your riding data via Bluetooth and synchronize with...
  • 【High-Tech Cycling Computer】 XOSS G+ wireless bike computer has a bulit-in high-sensitivity GPS chip, which allows the bike computer positioning...
Bestseller No. 19
iGPSPORT BSC300 GPS Cycling/Bike Computer, Bicycle Computer with Offline maps and Dynamic Road...
  • 【Global offline maps】The bike gps computer has a built-in global offline map and supports GPS+Beidou+GLONASS+GALILEO+QZSS satellite signals. After...
  • 【Smart route planning】:According to the destination you input, the cycling computers can intelligently generate a route with turning directions,...
  • 【ANT+/BLE5.0 Sensors Connection】Can be connected with speed/cadence/heart rate sensors, power meter, and smart watches. Also this unit can provide...
  • 【Route import sharing】The bike computers will automatically generate turn instructions for routes and file types; including GPX, TCX, FIT, CNX...
  • 【99% Devices compatible】The bike gps supports Bluetooth 5.0 and ANT+ dual-mode protocols, and can quickly and stably link with 99% of the brand's...
SaleBestseller No. 20
Sigma BC 23.16 STS Digital Wireless Bicycle Computer | Altitude, Cadence & Heart Functions for...
  • WEATHERPROOF W/ LONG BATTERY LIFE: The BC 23.16 STS is water-resistant and weatherproof, so it can be used at any time. Cyclists do not have to worry...
  • QUICK TO MOUNT: The BC 23.16 STS's handlebar bracket and the speed and cadence sensor can be mounted quickly on the bike with cable ties (included)....
  • EASY TO OPERATE: The BC 23.16 STS is attractive not only because of its many features, but also because of its ease of use. Laps and bike, altitude,...
  • LINGUISTIC TALENT: The BC BC 23.16 STS is a linguistic genius. Its full text display can be in English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, or...
  • PREDEFINED TIRE SIZES: The pre-defined tire sizes, ranging from a small child's bike to a 29" bike, make it easy to set the BC 23.16 STS. You can also...

What should you look for when purchasing the best bike computer with cadence?

To purchase the right product, you need to research its qualities and flaws.

Diversity is highly important since it offers options for different budgets and lifestyles. Choosing the best bike computer with cadence requires asking yourself the right questions to ensure the product is precisely what you need.

To make your money’s worth, you should thoroughly research the options you are presented with and ask the following questions:

  • How does buying bike computer with cadence benefit me?
  • Is it worth the price?
  • Which bike computer with cadence is the best option to go for in the nowadays market?
  • What features are essential when purchasing the bike computer with cadence?
  • Which brand of the this is most trustworthy?
  • Which bike computer with cadence has the best price/value ratio?

You are bound to have even more vitally important questions when purchasing the bike computer with cadence. The best way to inform yourself about it is a meticulous exploration of internet resources and research for second opinions and customer reviews.

Various websites can hold pieces of information necessary for purchasing a top-notch product. Forums, reviews, and rating websites can all offer you the instrumental info needed to buy the best possible bike computer with cadence. In order to get accurate information, you should explore trustworthy websites that have a history of providing customers with specific and genuine content.

Curee.org worked hard and conducted comprehensive research to get you the necessary information regarding the bike computer with cadence.

It helps us to put together a high-quality buying guide that will provide you with pros and cons, features, and reasons the product is the right choice for you. To get the bike computer with cadence that will suit your needs best, you should consider the following factors:

Advantages of the Brand

Every brand of bike computer with cadence holds different values to it. Typically, each and every brand will have something unique that will attract your attention and make you consider their product as the leading option. The more unique the feature is, the more it will allure you to the product and its value.

Features

Each product has some value that separates it from the pack. Therefore, always ask yourself what features are relevant when purchasing the bike computer with cadence? What is essential for this product to have?

Value of the product

This factor is crucial since it can tell you how much value you will get for your money’s worth when purchasing this.

Customer reviews

The second opinion always matters when you cannot decide on which product you should opt for. These reviews will paint you the picture of the bike computer with cadence by real-world customers that had experience with the product and inform you on how well it served them.

Customer ratings


Customer ratings are similar to reviews but offer you a number or star rating of the bike computer with cadence, which can tip the scales when you are unsure which product to choose.

Reliability

To get the bike computer with cadence that will serve your purposes and pay off, you need to choose a reliable and durable one. High-quality product equals wise investment and peace of mind.

Beware off-brands

Purchasing the off-brand bike computer with cadence is unwise. Always look for reliable brands that offer you the highest possible quality and are trusted and recognized as a legitimate option.

Curee.org always tends to bring its visitors accurate and valuable information that is relevant to the bike computer with cadence. We always refresh and update our content since our priority is and has always been top-notch user experience.

If you have any questions or suggestions about our presentation of the this product, please let us know. You can contact us here, and if our article has made you interested in our work, you can find more about us and better realize our vision and what it represents.

FAQ:

Q: What device to use for bike cadence and speed?

A: Garmin Forerunner 310XT. Luckily I got a Garmin Forerunner 310XT with bike attachment and the cadence sensor still needed to attach the sensors with cables. MapMyRide. Using only MapMyRide I missed out on getting the cadence reading,the speed was not that important to me,the cadence was,I’m a bit of a lazy bike … Wahoo BlueSC. …

Q: What is the ideal cycling cadence?

A: For most experienced riders, ideal cadence is in the range of 80-100 rpm – and most tend to automatically pedal at around 90 rpm in normal condition . Non-cyclists tend to spin a bit lower at around 60-70 rpm. Try this to see what cadence may be the best target for you.

Q: What is the Ideal Bike cadence for You?

A: Fast Twitch/Less Cycling Fit: Your preferred pedaling cadence is definitely slower,likely in the 75 to 85 rpm range. Fast Twitch/More Cycling Fit: You’ll be more efficient at moderate cadence range,about 85 to 90 rpm. Slow Twitch/Less Cycling Fit: Your preferred cadence will be in the moderate range of 85 to 90 rpm.

Q: What is the proper cycling cadence?

A: There is no hard set and fast rule on ideal cadence, and it actually depends on what kind of cycling you are doing, body type and fitness level. In a criterium race you want to have a higher cadence (90-100rpm) than in a time trial (80-90rpm).